Soft-tissue injuries are the most common injuries resulting from participation in sport.
They include the following:
skin injuries—abrasions, lacerations and blisters•
muscle injuries—tears or strains of muscle fibers and contusions•
tendon injuries—tears or strains of tendon fibers and inflammation (tendonitis)•
ligament injuries—sprains and tears of ligament fibers.•
Soft-tissue injuries can result in internal bleeding and swelling. Prompt and effective management of this bleeding aids recovery.
Hard-tissue injuries are those involving damage to the bones of the skeleton. They range from severe fractures and joint dislocations to bruising of the bone. A direct force can bruise a bone and cause bleeding between the outer layer of the bone and the underlying compact bone. This is common in a bone such as a tibia (shin) where there is little muscle tissue over the bone to absorb the force.
Bones have a blood supply and internal bleeding can result from a fracture. In major injuries, this internal bleeding in the bone, together with bleeding from surrounding damaged tissue, can lead to shock and serious circulatory complications.